SYLLABUS

Zoology major syllabus gauhati university: CBCS for Honors

Zoology major syllabus Gauhati university: CBCS for Honors: Recently Gauhati University has made some changes to its syllabus. And many of the students having a hard time finding it.So we has brought the syllabus for all Subjects and streams. From B.SC to B.A and B.COM. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4rt,5th,6th semester.

Zoology syllabus For 1st semester

CORE COURSE I

CODE: ZOO-HC-1016

NON-CHORDATES I: PROTISTS TO PSEUDOCOELOMATES

THEORY

 

Unit 1: Protista, Parazoa and Metazoa

General characteristics and Classification upto classes Study of Euglena,  Amoeba and Paramecium Life cycle and pathogenicity of Plasmodium vivax and Entamoeba histolytica Locomotion and Reproduction in Protista Evolution of symmetry and segmentation of Metazoa.

Unit 2: Porifera 7

General characteristics and Classification upto classes Canal system and spicules in sponges.

Unit 3: Cnidaria 12

General characteristics and Classification uptoclasses Metagenesis in Obelia Polymorphism in Cnidaria Corals and coral reefs.

Unit 4: Ctenophora 4

General characteristics and Evolutionary significance.

Unit 5: Platyhelminthes 10

General characteristics and Classification up to classes Life cycle and pathogenicity of Fasciola hepatica and Taeniasolium.

Unit 6: Nemathelminthes 8

General characteristics and Classification up to classes Lifecycle, and pathogenicity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Wuchereri abancrofti Parasitic adaptations in helminthes.

 

Practical for NON-CHORDATES I: PROTISTS TO PSEUDOCOELOMATES

PRACTICALS

  1. Study of whole mount of Euglena, Amoeba and Paramecium, Binary fission and Conjugation in Paramecium.
  2. Examination of pond water collected from different places for diversity in protista.
  3. Study of Sycon(T.S. and L.S.), Hyalonema, Euplectella,Spongilla.
  4. Study of Obelia, Physalia, Millepora, Aurelia, Tubipora, Corallium. Alcyonium, Gorgonia, Metridium, Pennatula, Fungia, Meandrina,Madrepora.
  5. One specimen/slide of anyctenophore
  6. Study of adult Fasciola hepatica, Taenia solium and their life cycles (Slides/micro- photographs).
  7. Study of adult Ascaris lumbricoides and its life stages(Slides/micro-photographs).
  8. To submit a Project Report on any related topic on life cycles.

 

CORE COURSE II

CODE: ZOO-HC-1026

PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY

THEORY

Unit 1: Introduction to Ecology

History of ecology, Autecology and synecology, Levels of organization, Laws of limiting factors, Study of physical factors.

Unit2: Population

Unitary and Modular populations Unique and group attributes of population: Density, natality, mortality, life tables, fecundity tables, survivorship curves, age ratio, sex ratio, dispersal and dispersion Exponential and logistic growth, equation and patterns, r and K strategies Population regulation – density-dependent and independent factors Population interactions, Gause’s Principle with laboratory and field examples, Lotka-Volterra equation for competition and Predation, functional and numerical responses.

Unit3: Community characteristics: species richness, dominance, diversity, abundance, vertical stratification, Ecotone and edge effect; Ecological succession with one example Theories pertaining to climax community

Unit4: Ecosystem

Types of ecosystems with one example in detail, Food chain: Detritus and grazing food chains, Linear and Y-shaped food chains, Food web, Energy flow through the ecosystem, Ecological pyramids and Ecological efficiencies Nutrient and biogeochemical cycle with one example of Nitrogen cycle Human modified ecosystem

Unit 5: Applied Ecology

Ecology in Wildlife Conservation and M10 anagement

Zoology major syllabus gauhati university: CBCS for Honors

Practical for PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY

 

PRACTICALS

  1. Study of life tables and plotting of survivorship curves of different types from the hypothetical/real data provided.
  2. Determination of population density in a natural/hypothetical Community by quadrate method and calculation of Shannon- We iner diversity in dex for the same community.

 

  1. Study of an aquatic ecosystem: Phytoplankton and zooplankton, Measurement of area, temperature, turbidity/penetration of light, determination of pH, and Dissolved Oxygen content (Winkler’smethod).
  2. Report on a visit to National Park/Biodiversity Park/Wild life sanctuary.

 

Zoology Syllabus for 2nd Semester

CORE COURSE III

CODE: ZOO-HC-2016

NON-CHORDATES II: COELOMATES

THEORY

 

Unit 1: Introduction to Coelomates

Evolution of coelom and metamerism.

Unit 2: Annelida 10

General characteristics and Classification upto classes Excretion in Annelida.

Unit 3: Arthropoda 17

General characteristics and Classification upto classes Vision and Respiration in Arthropoda Metamorphosis in Insects Social life in bees and termites.

Unit 4: Onychophora 4

General characteristics and Evolutionary significance.

Unit 5: Mollusca

General characteristics and Classification upto classes Respiration in Mollusca Torsion and detorsion in Gastropoda Pearl formation in bivalves Evolutionary significance of trochophore larva.

Unit 6: Echinodermata 12

General characteristics and Classification upto classes Water-vascular system in Asteroidea Larval forms in Echinodermata Affinities with Chordates.

 

PRACTICAL NON-CHORDATES II: COELOMATES

 

  1. Study of followingspecimens: Annelids-Aphrodite, Nereis, Heteronereis ,Sabella, Serpula, Chaetopterus, Pheretima, Hirudinaria Arthropods – Limulus, Palamnaeus, Palaemon, Daphnia, Balanus, Sacculina, Cancer, Eupagurus, Scolopendra, Julus, Bombyx, Periplaneta, termites and honey bees Onychophora – Peripatus Molluscs – Chiton, Dentalium, Pila, Doris, Helix, Unio, Ostrea, Pinctada,Sepia, Octopus, Nautilus Echinodermates – Pentaceros/Asterias, Ophiura, Clypeaster, Echinus, Cucumariaand Antedon.
  2. Study ofd igestive system,septa lnephridiaan dpharyn gealneph ridiaofear te worm
  3. T.S. through pharynx, gizzard, and typhlosolar intestine ofearthworm
  4. Mount of mouth parts and dissection of digestive system and nervous systemof Periplaneta.
  5. To submit a Project Report on any related topic to larval forms (crustacean, mollusc andechinoderm).

 

CORE COURSE IV

CODE: ZOO-HC-2026

CELL BIOLOGY

THEORY

Unit 1: Over view of Cells

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, Virus, Viroids, Mycoplasma, Prions.

Unit 2:Plasma Membrane  Various models of plasma membrane structure Transport across membranes: Active and Passive transport, Facilitated transport Cell junctions: Tight junctions, Desmosomes, Gap junctions

Unit 3:Endomembrane System

Structure and Functions: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes.

Unit 4: Mitochondria and Peroxisomes 8

Mitochondria:Structure,Semi- autonomousnature,Endosymbiotichypothesis Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain, Chemi-osmotichypothesis Peroxisomes

Unit 5: Cytoskeleton 8

Structure and Functions: Microtubules, Microfilaments and Intermediate filaments.

Unit 6: Nucleus 12

Structure of Nucleus: Nuclearenvelope, Nuclear pore complex, Nucleolus Chromatin: Euchromatin and Hetrochromatin and packaging(nucleosome)

Unit 7: Cell Division

Mitosis, Meiosis, Cell cycle and its regulation.

 

Unit 8:Cell Signaling

GPCR and Role of second messenger (CAMP).

 

PRACTICAL for CELL BIOLOGY

 

  1. Preparation of temporary stained squash of onion root tip to study various stages of mitosis.
  2. Study of various stages of meiosis.
  3. Preparation of permanent slide to show the presence of Barrbody in human female blood cells/cheek cells.
  4. Preparation of permanent slide to demonstrate: iDNA by Feulgen reaction ii Mucopolysaccharides by PAS reaction iii Proteins by Mercuro bromophenol blue/FastGreen.

Gauhati High Court

Zoology Syllabus for 3rd Semester

CORE COURSE V

DIVERSITY OF CHORDATA

CODE: ZOO-HC-3016

THEORY

Unit 1: Introduction to Chordates

General characteristics and outline classification.

Unit 2: Protochordata

General characteristics of Hemichordata, Urochordata and Cephalochordata; Study of larval forms in protochordates; Retrogressive metamorphosis in Urochordata.

Unit 3: Origin of Chordata

Dipleurula concept and the Echinoderm theory of origin of chordates Advanced features of vertebrates over Protochordata.

Unit 4: Agnatha

General characteristics and classification of cyclostomes up to class.

Unit 5 : Pisces

General characteristics of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, classification upto order Migration, Osmoregulation and Parental care in fishes.

Unit 6: Amphibia

Origin of Tetrapoda (Evolution of terrestrial ectotherms); General characteristics and classification upto order; Parental care in Amphibians.

Unit 7 : Reptilia

General characteristics and classification up to order; Affinities of Sphenodon; Poison apparatus and Biting mechanism in snakes.

Unit 8 : Aves

General characteristics and classification up to order Archaeopteryx– a connecting link; Principles and aerodynamics of flight, Flight adaptations and Migration in birds

Unit 9: Mammals

General characters and classification up to order; Affinities of Prototheria; Adaptive radiation with reference to locomotory appendages.

 

Unit 10: Zoogeography

Zoo geographical realms, Theories pertaining to distribution of animals, Plate tectonic and Continental drift theory, distribution of vertebrates in different realms.

 

PRACTICAL for DIVERSITY OF CHORDATA

 

  1. Protochordata

Balanoglossus, Herdmania, Branchiostoma, Colonial Urochordata  Sections of Balanoglossus through proboscis and branchio genital regions, Sections of Amphioxus through pharyngeal, intestinal and caudal regions.Permanent slide of Herdmania spicules.

  1. Agnatha

Petromyzon, Myxine.

  1. Fishes

Scoliodon, Sphyrna, Pristis, Torpedo, Chimaera, Mystus, Heteropneustes, Labeo, Exocoetus, Echeneis, Anguilla, Hippocampus,Tetrodon/ Diodon, Anabas, Flat fish.

  1. Amphibia

Ichthyophis/Ureotyphlus, Necturus, Bufo, Hyla, Alytes, Salamandra

  1. Reptilia

Chelone, Trionyx, Hemidactylus, Varanus, Uromastix, Chamaeleon,Ophiosaurus,Draco,

Bungarus, Vipera, Naja, Hydrophis, Zamenis, Crocodylus Key for Identification of poisonous and non-poisonoussnakes.

  1. Aves

Study of six common birds from different orders. Types of beaks and claws.

  1. Mammalia

Sorex, Bat (Insectivorous and Frugivorous), Funambulus, Loris, Herpestes, Erinaceous.

Mount of weberian ossicles of fish Power point presentation on study of any two animals from two different classes by students (may be included if dissections not given permission).

 

 

CORE COURSE VI

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY: CONTROLLING AND COORDINATING SYSTEMS

CODE: ZOO-HC-3026

THEORY

Unit 1: Tissues

Structure, location, classification and functions of epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue and nervous tissue.

Unit 2: Bone and Cartilage

Structure and types of bones and cartilages, Ossification, bone growth and resorption.

Unit 3: Nervous System

Structure of neuron, resting membrane potential, Origin of action potential and its propagation across the myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers; Types of synapse, Synaptic transmission and, Neuromuscular junction; Reflex action and its types – reflex arc; Physiology of hearing and vision.

Unit 4: Muscle 12

Histology of different types of muscle; Ultra structure of skeletal muscle; Molecular and chemical basis of muscle contraction; Characteristics of muscle twitch; Motor unit, summation and tetanus

Unit 5: Reproductive System

Histology of testis and ovary; Physiology of male and female reproduction; Puberty, Methods of contraception in male and female

Unit 6: Endocrine System

Histology of endocrine glands – pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal; hormones secreted by them and their mechanism of action; Classification of hormones; Regulation of their secretion; Mode of

Hormone action,Signal transduction pathways for steroidalandnon- steroidal hormones;Hypothalamus(neuroendocrinegland)-  principal nuclei involved in neuro endocrine control of anterior pituitary and endocrines system; Placental hormones

 

PRACTICALS of ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY: CONTROLLING AND COORDINATING SYSTEMS

 

  1. Demonstration of the unconditioned reflex action (Deep tendon reflex such as knee

jerkreflex)

  1. Preparation of temporary mounts:Squamouse pithelium,Striatedm usclefibres and nervecells
  2. Study of permanent slides of Mammalian skin, Cartilage, Bone, Spinal cord, Nervecell,Pituitary,Pancreas,Testis,Ovary,Adrenal,Thyroid and Parathyroid
  3. Microtomy: Preparation of permanent slide of any five mammalian(Goat/ rat/mice)tissues

 

CORE COURSE VII

FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOCHEMISTRY

CODE: ZOO-HC-3036

THEORY

 

Unit1: Carbohydrates

Structure and Biological importance: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Glycoconjugates

Unit 2 : Lipids

Structure and Significance: Physiologically important saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Tri-acylglycerols, Phospholipids, Glycolipids, Steroids

Unit 3 :Proteins

Amino acids: Structure, Classification and General properties of α- amino acids; Physiological importance of essential and non-essential α- amino acids Proteins: Bonds stabilizing protein structure; Levels of organization in proteins; Denaturation; Introduction to simple and conjugate proteins Immunoglobulins: Basic Structure, Classes and Function, Antigenic Determinants

Unit 4 : Nucleic Acids

Structure: Purines and pyrimidines,Nucleosides,Nucleotides,Nucleicacids CotCurves: Base pairing, Denaturation and Renaturation of DNA Types of DNAand RNA, Complementarity of DNA, Hpyo- Hyperchromaticity of DNA.

Unit 5 : Enzymes

Nomenclature and classification; Cofactors; Specificity of enzyme action; Isozymes; Mechanism of enzyme action; Enzyme kinetics; Factors affecting rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions; Derivation of Michaelis-Menten equation, Concept of Km and Vmax, Lineweaver- Burk plot; Multi-substrate reactions; Enzyme inhibition; Allosteric enzymes and their kinetics; Regulation of e2n2zyme action.

 

 

PRACTICAL Of FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOCHEMISTRY

  1. Qualitative tests of functional groups in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
  2. Paper chromatography of amino acids.
  3. Action of salivary amylase under optimum conditions.
  4. Effect of pH, temperature on the action of salivary amylase.
  5. Demonstration of proteins separation by SDS-PAGE.

 

CORE COURSEVIII COMPARATIVE

ANATOMY OF VERTEBRATES

CODE: ZOO-HC-4016

 

THEORY

Unit 1:Integumentary System

Structure, functions and derivatives of integument

Unit 2: Skeletal System

Overview of axial and appendicular skeleton, Jaw suspensorium, Visceral arches

Unit 3: Digestive System

Alimentary canal and associated glands, dentition

Unit 4: Respiratory System

Skin, gills, lungs and air sacs; Accessory respiratory organs

Unit 5: Circulatory System

General plan of circulation, evolution of heart and aortic arches

Unit 6: Urinogenital System

Succession of kidney, Evolution of urinogenital ducts, Types of mammalian uteri.

Unit 7: Nervous System

Comparative account of brain Autonomic nervous system, Spinal cord, Cranial nerves in mammals.

Unit 8: Sense Organs

Classification of receptors Brief account of visual and auditory receptors in man.

 

PRACTICAL of COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OFVERTEBRATES

 

  1. Study of placoid, cycloid and ctenoid scales through permanent slides/photographs.
  2. Disarticulated skeleton of Frog, Fowl, Rabbit.
  3. Carapace and plastron of turtle/tortoise.
  4. Mammalian skulls: One herbivorous and one carnivorous animal.
  5. Study of structure of any two organs (heart, lung, kidney, eye. and ear) from video recording (may be included if dissection not permitted)
  6. Project on skeletal modifications in vertebrates (may be included if dissection not permitted)

 

 

CORE COURSE IX

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY: LIFE SUSTAINING SYSTEMS

CODE: ZOO-HC-4026

 

THEORY

Unit 1: Physiologyof Digestion

Structural organization and functions of gastrointestinal tract and associated glands; Mechanical and chemical digestion of food; Absorptions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, minerals and vitamins; Hormonal control of secretion of enzymes in Gastrointestinaltract.

Unit 2: Physiology of Respiration

Histology of trachea and lung; Mechanism of respiration, Pulmonary ventilation; Respiratory volumes and capacities; Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood; Respiratory pigments, Dissociation curves and the factors influencing it; Carbon monoxide poisoning; Control of respiration

Unit 3 : Renal Physiology

Structure of kidney and its functional unit; Mechanism of urine Formation; Regulation of water balance; Regulation of acid-base balance.

Unit 4 : Blood

Components of blood and their functions; Structure and functions of haemoglobin Haemostasis: Blood clotting system, Kallikrein-Kinninogen system, Complement system&Fibrinolytic system,Haemopoiesis Blood groups: Rh factor, ABO and MN.

Unit 5: Physiology of Heart

Structure of mammalian heart; Coronary circulation; Structure and working of conducting myocardial fibers.Origin and conduction of cardiac impulses Cardiac cycle; Cardiac output and its regulation, Frank-Starling Law of the heart, nervous and chemical regulation of heart rate. Electrocardiogram, Blood pressure and its regulation.

 

PRACTICALS of ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY: LIFE SUSTAINING SYSTEMS

 

  1. Determination of ABO Blood group.
  2. Enumeration of red blood cells and white blood cells using haemocytometer.
  3. Estimation of haemoglobin using Sahli’shaemoglobinometer.
  4. Preparation of haemin crystals.
  5. Recording of blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.
  6. Examination of sections of mammalian oesophagus,stomach,duode num,ileum, rectum liver, trachea, lung, kidney.

 

CORE COURSE X BIOCHEMISTRY OF

METABOLIC PROCESSES

CODE: ZOO-HC-4036

 

THEORY

Unit 1: Overview of Metabolism

Catabolism vs Anabolism, Stages of catabolism, Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways, Shuttle systems and membrane transporters; ATP as “Energy Currency of cell”; coupled reactions; Use of reducing equivalents and cofactors; Intermediary metabolism and regulatory mechanisms.

Unit 2 : Carbohydrate Metabolism

Sequence of reactions and regulation of glycolysis, Citric acid cycle, Phosphate pentose pathway, Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis.

Unit 3 : Lipid Metabolism

β-oxidation and omega-oxidation of saturated fatty acids with even and odd number of carbon atoms; Biosynthesis of palmiticacid; Ketogenesis.

Unit 4 : Protein Metabolism

Catabolism of amino acids: Transamination, Deamination, Urea cycle; Fate of C-skeleton of Glucogenic and Ketogenic amino acids.

Unit 5 : OxidativePhosphorylation 10

Redox systems; Review of mitochondrial respiratory chain, Inhibitors and un-couplers of Electron Transport System.

 

PRACTICALS  of BIOCHEMISTRY OF METABOLIC PROCESS

 

  1. Estimation of total protein in given solutions by Lowry’smethod.
  2. Detection of SGOT and SGPT in serum/tissue
  3. To study the enzymatic activity of Trypsin and Lipase.
  4. Study of biological oxidation (SDH) [goatliver]
  5. To perform the Acid and Alkaline phosphatase assay from serum/tissue.

 

CORE COURSE XI

MOLECULAR

BIOLOGY

CODE: ZOO-HC-5016

THEORY

Unit 1:Nucleic Acids

Salient features of DNA and RNA Watson and Crick model of DNA.

Unit 2: DNA Replication

DNA Replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, mechanism of

DNA replication, Semi-conservative, bidirectional and semi- discontinuous replication, RNA priming, Replication of circular and linear ds-DNA, replication of telomeres

Unit 3 : Transcription

RNA polymerase and transcription Unit, mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, synthesis of rRNA and mRNA, transcription factors.

Unit 4:Translation

Geneticcode,Degeneracy of the genetic code and Wobble Hypothesis;Process of protein synthesis in prokaryotes: Ribosome structure and assembly in prokaryotes, fidelity of protein synthesis, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and charging of tRNA; Proteins involved in initiation, elongation and termination of

Polypeptide chain;In hibitors of protein synthesis; Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation.

Unit 5: Post Transcriptional Modifications and Processing of Eukaryotic RNA 6 Structure of globin mRNA; Split genes: concept of introns and exons, splicing mechanism, alternative splicing, exon shuffling, and RNA editing, Processing of tRNA.

Unit 6: GeneRegulation

Transcription regulation in prokaryotes: Principles of transcriptional regulation with examples from lac operon and trpoperon; Transcription regulation in eukaryotes: Activators, repressors, enhance rs, silencer elements; Gene silencing, Genetic impr3i0nting.

Unit 7: DNA Repair Mechanisms

Pyrimidine dimerization and mismatch repair.

Unit 8: Regulatory RNAs 3

Ribo-switches, RNA interference, miRNA, siRNA.

 

PRACTICAL  of MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

 

  1. Study of Polytene chromosomes from Chironomous / Drosophilalarvae.
  2. Preparation of liquid culture medium(LB)and raise culture of coli.
  3. Estimation of the growth kinetics of E. coli by turbidity method.
  4. Quantitative estimation DNA using colorimeter (Diphenylamine reagent).
  5. Quantitative estimation of RNA using Orcinolreaction.
  6. Study and interpretation of electron micrographs/ photographshowing

(a) DNA replication

(b) Transcription

(c) Splitgenes

 

 

CORE COURSE XII

PRINCIPLES OF

GENETICS

CODE: ZOO-HC-5026

 

THEORY

Unit 1: Mendelian Genetics and its Extension

Principles of inheritance, Incomplete dominance and co- dominance, Multiple alleles, Lethal alleles, Epistasis, Pleiotropy, Sex-linked, sex- influenced and sex-limited characters inheritance.

Unit 2: Linkage, Crossing Over and Chromosomal Mapping

Linkage and crossing over, Cytological basis of crossing over, Molecular mechanisms of crossing over including models of recombination, Recombination frequency as a measure of linkage intensity, Two factor and three factor crosses, Interference and coincidence, Somatic cell hybridization.

Unit 3 : Mutations

Types of genemutations (Classification),Types of chromosoma laber rations (Classification, figures and with one suitable example of each),

Molecular

Basis of mutations in relation to UV light and chemical mutagens;Detection of mutations: CLB method, attached X method.

Unit 4:Sex Determination

Chromosomal mechanisms of sex determination in Drosophila and Man.

Unit 5: Extra-chromosoma in heritance

Criteria for extra-chromosomal inheritance, Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydomonas, Mitochondrial mutations in Saccharomyces, Infective heredity in Paramecium and Maternal effects

Unit 6:PolygenicInheritance

Polygenic inheritance with suitable examples; simple numericals based on it.

Unit 7: Recombination in Bacteria and Viruses

Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction, Complementation test in Bacteriophage

Unit 8: Transposable Genetic Elements

Transposons in bacteria, Ac-Ds elementsin maize and P elements in Drosophila, Transposons in humans

 

PRACTICALS  Of PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS

 

  1. To study the Mendelian laws and gene interactions.
  2. Chi-square analyses using seeds/beads/Drosophila.
  3. Linkage maps based on data from conjugation ,transformation and transduction.
  4. Linkage maps based on data from Drosophila crosses.
  5. Study of human karyotype (normal and abnormal).
  6. Pedigree analysis of some human inherited traits.

 

 

CORE COURSE XIII

DEVELOPMENTAL

BIOLOGY

CODE: ZOO-HC-6016

 

THEORY

Unit 1: Introduction

Historical perspective and basic concepts: Phases of development, Cell-Cell interaction, Pattern formation, Differentiation and growth,Differential gene expression, Cytoplasmic determinants and Asymmetric cell division.

Unit 2: Early Embryonic Development

Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis; Types of eggs, Egg membranes; Fertilization (External and Internal): Changes in gametes, Blocks to polyspermy; Planes and patterns of cleavage; Types of Blastula; Fate maps (including Techniques); Early development of frog and chick up to gastrulation; Embryonic induction and organizers

Unit 3: Late Embryonic Development

Fate of Germ Layers; Extra-embryonic membranes in birds; Implantation of embryo in humans, Placenta (Structure,types and functions of placenta).

Unit 4: Post Embryonic Development

Metamorphosis: Changes, hormonal regulations in amphibians and insects; Regeneration: Modes of regeneration, epimorphosis, morphallaxis and compensatory regeneration (with one example each); Ageing: Concepts and Theories.

Unit 5: Implications of Developmental Biology

Teratogenesis: Teratogenic agents and their effects on embryonic development; In vitro fertilization, Stem cell (ESC), Amniocentesis.

 

PRACTICALS of DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

 

  1. Study of whole mounts and sections of developmental stages offrog through permanent slides: Cleavage stages, blastula, gastrula, neurula, tail-bud stage, tadpole (external and internal gillstages).
  2. Study of whole mounts of developmental stages of chick through permanent slides: Primitive streak (13 and 18 hours), 21, 24, 28,33, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours of incubation (Hamilton and Hamburgerstages).
  3. Study of the developmental stages and life cycle of Drosophila from stock culture.
  4. Study of different sections of placenta (photomicropgraph/slides)
  5. Project report on Drosophila culture/chick embryo development

 

CORE COURSE XIV

EVOLUTIONARY

BIOLOGY

CODE: ZOO-HC-6026

 

THEORY

Unit1: Life’sBeginnings

Chemogeny, RNAworld, Biogeny, Origin of photosynthesis, Evolution of eukaryotes.

Unit 2: Historical review of evolutionary concept.

Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism

Unit 3 : Evidences of Evolution

Fossil record (types of fossils, transitional forms, geological time scale, evolution of horse, Molecular (universality of genetic code and protein synthesising machinery, three domains of life, neutral theory of molecular evolution, molecular clock ,example of globin gene family, rRNA/cyt c.

Unit4: Sources of variations:

Heritable variations and their role in evolution

Unit5: Population genetics:

Hardy-Weinberg Law (statement and derivation of equation, application of law to human Population); Evolutionary forces upsetting H-W equilibrium;Naturalselection(conceptoffitness,selectioncoefficient,derivationof one unit of selection for a dominant allele, genetic load, mechanism of working, types of selection, density-dependent selection, heterozygous superiority, kin selection, adaptive resemblances, sexual selection. Genetic Drift (mechanism, founder’s effect, bottleneck phenomenon;Role of Migration and Mutation in changingallele frequencies.

Unit6: Product of evolution:

Micro evolutionary changes (inter-population variations, clines, races, Species concept, Isolating mechanisms, modes of speciation—allopatric, sympatric, Adaptive radiation / macroevolution (exemplified by Galapagos finches.

Unit 7: Extinctions

Background and mass extinctions (causesandeffects),detail edexamp  leof K-Textinction

Unit8: Origin and evolution of man,

Unique hominin characteristics contrasted with primate characteristics, primate phylogeny from Dryopithecus leading to Homosapiens, molecular analysis of human origin

Unit 9: Phylogenetic trees

Multiple sequence alignment, construction of phylogenetic trees, interpretation of trees.

 

PRACTICALS of EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

 

  1. Study of fossils from models/pictures
  2. Study of homology and analogy from suitable pecimens
  3. Study and verification of Hardy-Weinberg Law by chi square analysis
  4. Graphical representation and interpretation of data of height/weight of asample of 100 humans in relation to their age and sex.
  5. Construction of phylogenetic trees with the help of bioinformatics tools(Clustal X, Phylip, NJ) and its interpretation.

 

 

DISCIPLINE CENTRIC ELECTIVE COURSES

 

CODE: ZOO-HE-5016

COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY and BIOSTATICS

 

THEORY

Unit 1: Introduction to Bioinformatics

Importance, Goal, Scope; Genomics, Transcriptomics, Systems Biology, Functional Genomics, Metabolomics, Molecular Phylogeny;Applications and Limitations of Bioinformatics.

Unit 2: Biological Databases

Introduction to biological databases; Primary, secondary and composite databases; Nucleic acid databases (GenBank, DDBJ, EMBL and NDB); Protein databases (PIR, SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, PDB); Metabolic pathway database (KEGG, EcoCyc, and MetaCyc); Small molecule databases (PubChem, Drug Bank, ZINC, CSD).

Unit 3: Data Generation and Data Retrieval

Generation of data (Gene sequencing, Protein sequencing, Mass spectrometry, Microarray), Sequence submission tools (BankIt, Sequin, Webin); Sequence file format (flat file, FASTA, GCG, EMBL, Clustal, Phylip, Swiss-Prot); Sequence annotation; Data retrieval systems (SRS, Entrez)

Unit 3: Basic Concepts of Sequence Alignment

Scoring Matrices (PAM, BLOSUM), Methods of Alignment (Dot matrix, Dynamic Programming, BLAST and FASTA); Local and global alignment, pair wise and multiple sequence alignments; Similarity, identity and homology of sequences.

Unit 4: Applications of Bioinformatics

Structural Bioinformatics (3-D protein, PDB), Functional genomics (genome- wide and high throughput approaches to gene and protein function), Drug discovery method (Basic concepts)

Unit 5: Biostatistics

Introduction, calculation of standard deviation, standard error, Co- efficient of Variance, Chi-square test, Z test, t-Test.

 

PRACTICAL of COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY

 

  1. Accessing biological databases
  2. Retrieval of nucleotide and protein sequences from the databases.
  3. To perform pair-wise alignment of sequences (BLAST) and interpret the output
  4. Predict the structure of protein from its amino acid sequence.
  5. To perform a “two-sample t- test” for a given set ofdata
  6. Tolearngraphicalrepresentationsofstatisticaldatawiththehel

pofcomputers (e.g. MSExcel).

 

 

CODE: ZOO-HC-5026

ANIMAL

BIOTECHNOLOGY

THEORY

 

Unit 1. Introduction

Concept and scope of biotechnology.

Unit 2. Molecular Techniques in Gene manipulation

Cloning vectors: Plasmids, Cosmids, Phagemids, Lambda Bacteriophage, M13, BAC, YAC, MAC and Expression vectors (characteristics). Restriction enzymes: Nomenclature, detailed study of Type II. Transformation techniques: Calcium chloride method and electroporation. Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries and screening by colony and plaque hybridization Southern, Northern and Western blotting DNA sequencing: Sanger method Polymerase Chain Reaction, DNA Finger Printing and DNA microarray.

Unit 3. Genetically Modified Organisms

Production of cloned and transgenic animals: Nuclear Transplantation, Retroviral Method, DNA microinjection Applications of transgenic animals: Production of pharmaceuticals, production of donor organs, knock outmice. Production of transgenic plants: Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Applications of transgenic plants: insect and herbicide resistant plants.

Unit 4. Culture Techniques and Applications

Animal cell culture, Expressing clone dgenesin mammalian cells, Molecular diagnosis of genetic diseases (Cysticfibrosis,Sickle cell anemia)Recombinant DNA in medicines: Recombinant insulin and human growth hormone, Gene therapy.

 

PRACTICAL of ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

 

  1. Genomic DNA isolation from E.coli
  2. Plasmid DNA isolation (pUC 18/19) from E.coli
  3. Restriction digestion of plasmid DNA.
  4. Construction of circular and linear restriction map from the data provided.
  5. Calculation of transformation efficiency from the data provided.
  6. To study following techniques through photographs
  7. Southern Blotting
  8. Northern Blotting
  9. Western Blotting
  10. DNA Sequencing (Sanger’sMethod)
  11. PCR
  12. DNA fingerprinting
  13. Project reporton animal cell culture

 

46

CODE: ZOO-HE-5036

ENDOCRINOLOGY

 

THEORY (Credits 4)

Unit 1: Introduction to Endocrinology 12

History of endocrinology, Classification, Characteristic and

Transport of Hormones, Neuro secretions and Neuro hormones

Unit 2: Epiphysis, Hypothalamo-hypophysialAxis 15

Structure of pineal gland, Secretions and their functions in biological

rhythm sand reproduction.

Structure of hypothalamus, Hypothalamic nuclei and their functions,

Regulation of neuroendocrine glands, Feed back mechanisms

Structure of pituitary gland, Hormones and their functions,

Hypothalamo- hypophysial portal system, Disorders of pituitary

gland.

Unit3:Peripheral Endocrine Glands 18

Structure, Hormones, Functions and Regulation of Thyroid gland,

Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Ovary and Testis

Hormones in homeostasis, Disorders of endocrine glands

Unit4: Regulation of Hormone Action 15

Hormone action at Cellular level: Hormone receptors, transduction and

regulation Hormone action at Molecular level: Molecular mediators,

Genetic control of hormone action

 

47

ENDOCRINOLOGY

 

PRACTICAL (Credits 2)

  1. Dissect and display of Endocrine glands in laboratory

bred rat* 2.Study of the permanent slides of all the

endocrine glands

  1. Demonstration of Castration/ovariectomy in laboratory

bred rat* 4. Designing of primers of any hormone

 

CODE: ZOO-HE-5046

PARASITOLOGY

 

THEORY (CREDITS 4)

Unit I: Introduction to Parasitology 3

Brief introduction of Parasitism, Parasite, Parasitoid and Vectors

(mechanical and biological vector) Host parasite relationship

Unit II: Parasitic Protists 15

Study of Morphology, Life Cycle, Prevalence, Epidemiology,

Pathogenicity, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment of Entamoeba

histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Trypanoso magambiense, Leishmania

donovani, Plasmodium vivax

Unit III: Parasitic Platyhelminthes 15

 

48

 

Study of Morphology, Life Cycle, Prevalence, Epidemiology,

Pathogenicity, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment of Fasciolopsis

buski, Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia solium and Hymenolepis nana

Unit IV: Parasitic Nematodes 15

Study of Morphology, Life Cycle, Prevalence, Epidemiology,

Pathogenicity, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment of

Ascarislumbricoides,

Ancylostomaduodenale,WuchereriabancroftiandTrichinellaspiralis.Study

ofstructure,life cycle and importance of Meloidogyne(root knot

nematode), Pratylencus(lesion nematode)

Unit IV: Parasitic Arthropoda 10

Biology, importance and control of ticks, mites,

Pediculushumanus(head and body louse), Xenopsyllacheopisand

Cimexlectularius

Unit V: Parasitic Vertebrates 2

A brief account of parasitic vertebrates; Cookicutter Shark, Candiru, Hood

Mockingbird and Vampire bat

 

PARASITOLOGY

 

PRACTICAL (Credits 2)

Study of life stages of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia

intestinalis, Trypanosoma gambiense, Leishmania donovani and

Plasmodium vivax through permanent slides/microphotographs

Study of adult and life stages of Fasciolopsis buski,

Schistoso mahaematobium, Taenia solium and Hymenolepis nana

through permanent slides/microphotographs

Study of adult and life stages of Ascarislumbricoides,

Ancylostomaduodenale, Wuchereriabancroftiand

Trichinellaspiralisthrough permanent slides/microphotographs

Study of plant parasitic root knot nematode,

Meloidogynefrom the soil sample

Study of Pediculushumanus(Head louse and Body louse),

XenopsyllacheopisandCimexlectulariusthroughpermanentslides/phot

ographs

Study of monogenea from the gills of fresh/marine fish

[Gills can be procured from fish market as by product of

theindustry]

Study of nematode/cestode parasites from the intestines of

Poultry bird [Intestine can be procured from poultry/market as a

byproduct]

Submission of a brief report on parasitic

Vertebrates

 

 

CODE: ZOO-HE-6026

FISH AND FISHERIES

 

THEORY (Credits 4)

UNIT 1: Introduction and Classification: 6

General description of fish; Account of systematic classification of

fishes (upto classes); Classification based on feeding habit, habitat and

manner of reproduction.

UNIT 2: Morphology and Physiology: 18

Types of fins and their modifications; Locomotion in fishes;

Hydrodynamics; Types of Scales, Use of scales in Classification and

determination of age of fish; Gills and gas exchange; Swim Bladder:

Types and role in Respiration, buoyancy; Osmoregulation in

Elasmobranchs; Reproductive strategies (special reference to Indian

fishes); Electric organs; Bioluminiscience; Mechanoreceptors; Schooling;

Parental care; Migration

UNIT3:Fisheries 12

Inland Fisheries; Marine Fisheries; Environmental factors influencing

the seasonal variations in fish catches in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of

Bengal; Fishing crafts and Gears; Depletion of fisheries resources;

Application of remote sensing and GIS in fisheries; Fisheries law and

regulations

Unit4:Aquaculture 20

Sustainable Aquaculture; Extensive, semi-intensive and intensive

culture offish; Pen and cage culture; Polyculture; Composite fish culture;

Brood stock management; Induced breeding of fish; Management of

finfish hatcheries;

Preparationandmaintenanceoffishaquarium;Preparationofcompounddietsf

or fish; Role of water quality in aquaculture; Fish diseases: Bacterial,

 

viral and parasitic;Preservationandprocessingofharvestedfish,Fisheryby-

products

 

UNIT 5: Fish in research 53 4

Transgenic fish, Zebra fish as a model organism in research

 

FISH AND FISHERIES

 

PRACTICAL (Credits 2)

  1. Morphometric and meristic characters of fishes
  2. Study of Petromyzon, Myxine, Pristis, Chimaera,

Exocoetus, Hippocampus, Gambusia, Labeo, Heteropneustes

,Anabas

  1. Study of different types of scales (through permanent slides/photographs).
  2. Study of crafts and gears used in Fisheries
  3. WaterqualitycriteriaforAquaculture:AssessmentofpH,cond

uctivity,Total solids, Total dissolved solids

  1. Study of air breathing organs in Channa, Heteropneustes, Anabas and

Clarias

  1. Demonstration of induced breeding in Fishes(video)
  2. Demonstration of parental care in fishes(video)
  3. ProjectReportonavisittoanyfishfarm/piscicultureunit/Zebra

fishrearing Lab.

 

CODE: ZOO-HE-6036

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

 

 

 

THEORY (CREDITS 4)

 

Unit 1: Reproductive Endocrinology

Gonadalhormonesandmechanismofhormoneaction,steroids,glycoproteinhormones

,and prostaglandins, hypothalamo – hypophyseal – gonadal axis, regulation of

gonado trophin secretion in male and female; Reproductive System: Development

and differentiation of gonads, genital ducts, external genitalia, mechanism of sex

differentiation.

Unit 2: Functional anatomy of male reproduction

Outline and histological of male reproductive system in rat and human; Testis:

Cellular functions, germ cell, system cell renewal; Spermatogenesis: kinetics and

hormonal regulation; Androgen synthesis and metabolism; Epididymal function and

sperm maturation; Accessory glands functions; Sperm transportation in male tract

Unit 3: Functional anatomy of female reproduction

Outline and histological of female reproductive system in rat and human; Ovary:

folliculogenesis, ovulation, corpus luteum formation and regression;

Steroidogenesis and secretion of ovarian hormones; Reproductive cycles (rat and

human) and their regulation, changes in the female tract; Ovum transport in the

fallopian tubes; Sperm transport in the female tract, fertilization; Hormonal control

of implantation; Hormonal regulation of gestation, pregnancy diagnosis, foeto –

maternal relationship; Mechanism of parturition and its hormonal regulation;

Lactation and its regulation

Unit 4: Reproductive Health

Infertility in male and female: causes, diagnosis and management; Assisted

Reproductive Technology: sex selection, sperm banks, frozen embryos, in vitro

fertilization, ET,EFT, IUT, ZIFT, GIFT, ICSI, PROST; Modern contraceptive

technologies; Demographic terminology used in family planning

 

55

 

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

 

PRACTICAL (CREDITS 2)

  1. Study of animal house: set up and maintenance of animal house,

breeding techniques, care of normal and experimental animals.

  1. Examination of vaginal smear rats from live animals.
  2. Examination of histological sections from photomicrographs/

permanent slides of rat/human: testis, epididymis and accessory glands of

male reproductive systems; Sections of ovary, fallopian tube, uterus

(proliferative and secretory stages), cervix and vagina.

  1. Sperm count and sperm motility in rat
  2. Study of modern contraceptive devices

 

 

CODE: ZOO-HE-6046

 

WILD LIFE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

THEORY (CREDITS 4)

 

Unit 1: Introduction to Wild Life

Values of wildlife-positive and negative; Conservation ethics;

Importance of conservation; Causes of depletion; World conservation

strategies.

Unit 2: Evaluation and management of wild life

Habitat analysis, Physical parameters :Topography, Geology, Soil

and water; Biological Parameters: food, cover, forage, browse and

cover estimation; Standard evaluation pro5c6edures: remote sensing and

GIS.

 

57

Unit 3: Management of habitats

Setting back succession; Grazing logging; Mechanical treatment;

Advancing the

successionalprocess;Coverconstruction;Preservationofgeneralgeneticdi

versity; Restoration of degradedhabitats

Unit 4: Population estimation

Population density, Natality, Birth rate, Mortality, fertility schedules and

sex ratio computation; Faecal analysis of ungulates and carnivores: Faecal

samples, slide preparation, Hair identification, Pug marks and census

method.

Unit 5: Management planning of wild life in protected areas

Estimationofcarryingcapacity;Ecotourism/wildlifetourisminforests;Conceptofclimax

persistence; Ecology of perturbence.

Unit 7: Management of excess population

Bio-telemetry; Care of injured and diseased animal; Quarantine; Common

diseases of wild animal

Unit 8: Protected areas

Nationalparks&sanctuaries,Communityreserve;ImportantfeaturesofprotectedareasinI

ndia; Tigerconservation-TigerreservesinIndia;ManagementchallengesinTigerreserve.

 

58

 

WILD LIFE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

 

PRACTICALS (CREDITS 2)

  1. Identification of flora, mammalian fauna, avian fauna, herpeto-fauna
  2. Demonstration of basic equipment needed in wildlife

studies use, care and maintenance (Compass, Binoculars, Spotting

scope, Range Finders, Global Positioning System, Various types of

Cameras and lenses)

  1. Familiarization and study of animal evidences in the field;

Identification of animals through pugmarks, hoofmarks, scats,

pellet groups, nest, antlers etc.

  1. Demonstration of different field techniques for flora and fauna
  2. PCQ,Tentree

method,Circular,Square&rectangularplots,Parker’s2Stepandot

her methods for ground cover assessment, Tree canopy cover

assessment, Shrub cover assessment.

  1. Trail/transectmonitoringforabundanceanddiversityestimati

onofmammalsandbird (direct and indirect evidences)

 

 

ZOO-HE-6056

DISSERTATION

 

Dissertation of Zoology Specific subject

.

 

GENERIC ELECTIVE COURSES

CODE: ZOO-HG-1016

ANIMAL DIVERSITY

 

THEORY (CREDITS 4)

Unit 1:Kingdom Protista 4

General characters and classification up to classes; Locomotory Organelles and locomotion in

Protozoa

Unit 2: Phylum Porifera 3

General characters and classification up to classes; Canal System in Sycon

Unit 3: Phylum Cnidaria 3

General characters and classification up to classes; Polymorphism in Hydrozoa

Unit 4:Phylum Platyhelminthes 3

General characters and classification up to classes; Life history of Taenia solium

Unit 5: Phylum Nemathelminthes 5

General characters and classification up to classes; Life history of Ascaris lumbricoides and

its parasitic adaptations

Unit 6:Phylum Annelida 3

General characters and classification up to classes; Metamerism in Annelida

Unit 7:Phylum Arthropoda 5

General characters and classification up to classes; Vision in Arthropoda, Metamorphosis in

Insects

 

60

 

Unit 8: Phylum Mollusca

General characters and classification up to classes; Torsion in gastropods

 

4

 

Unit 9: Phylum Echinodermata

General characters and classification up to classes; Water-vascular system in Asteroidea

4

 

Unit 10: Protochordates

General features and Phylogeny of Protochordata

 

2

 

Unit 11: Agnatha

General features of Agnatha and classification of cyclostomes up to classes

 

2

 

Unit 12: Pisces

General features and Classification up to orders; Osmoregulation in Fishes

 

4

 

61

 

Unit13: Amphibia 4

 

General features and Classification up to orders; Parental care

 

Unit14: Reptiles 4

General features and Classification up to orders; Poisonous and non-poisonous snakes, Biting

mechanism in snakes

 

Unit15: Aves 5

 

General features and Classification up to orders; Flight adaptations in birds

 

Unit17: Mammals 5

 

Classification up to orders; Origin of mammals

Note: Classification of Unit 1-9 to be followed from “Barnes, R.D. (1982). Invertebrate

Zoology, V Edition”

 

65

 

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY OF

 

VERTEBRATES

 

PRACTICAL (CREDITS 2)

  1. Osteology:
  2. a) Disarticulated skeleton of fowl and rabbit
  3. b) Carapace and plastron of turtle/tortoise
  4. c) Mammalian skulls: One herbivorous and one carnivorous animal.
  5. Frog – Study of developmental stages – whole mounts and sections through permanent

slides – cleavage stages, blastula, gastrula, neurula, tail bud stage, tadpole external and

internal gill stages.

  1. Study of the different types of placenta- histological sections through permanent slides or

photomicrographs.

  1. Examination of gametes – frog/rat – sperm and ova through permanent slides or

photomicrographs.

 

CORE COURSE III

PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

CODE: ZOO-HG-3016

 

THEORY (CREDITS 4)

Unit 1: Nerveandmuscle

Structure of a neuron, Resting membrane potential, Graded potential, Origin of Action

potential and its propagation in myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres, Ultra-structure

of skeletal muscle, Molecular and chemical basis of muscle contraction

 

Unit2: Digestion 5

Physiology of digestion in the alimentary canal; Absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids

Unit3: Respiration 5

Pulmonary ventilation, Respiratory volumes and capacities, Transport of Oxygen and carbon

dioxide in blood

 

Unit 4: Excretion 5

Structure of nephron, Mechanism of Urine formation, Counter-current Mechanism

Unit 5: Cardiovascular system 6

Composition of blood, Hemostasis, Structure of Heart, Origin and conduction of the cardiac

impulse, Cardiac cycle

 

Unit 6: Reproduction andEndocrineGlands 7

Physiology of male reproduction: hormonal control of spermatogenesis; Physiology of

female reproduction: hormonal control of menstrualcycle

Structure and function of pituitary, thyroid, Parathyroid, pancreas and adrenal

Unit 7: Carbohydrate Metabolism 8

Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Pentose phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis,

metabolism, Review of electron transport chain

 

Glycogen

 

Unit 8: Lipid Metabolism

Biosynthesis and β oxidation of palmitic acid

 

5

 

Unit 9: Protein metabolism

Transamination, Deamination and Urea Cycle

 

5

 

Unit 10: Enzymes

Introduction, Mechanism of action, Enzyme Kinetics, Inhibition and Regulation

 

6

 

67

 

PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

 

PRACTICAL (CREDITS2)

  1. Preparation of hemin crystals
  2. Study of permanent histological sections of mammalian pituitary, thyroid, pancreas,

adrenal gland

  1. Study of permanent slides of spinal cord, duodenum, liver, lung, kidney, bone, cartilage
  2. Qualitative tests to identify functional groups of carbohydrates in given solutions (Glucose,

Fructose, Sucrose, Lactose)

  1. Estimation of total protein in given solutions by Lowry’s method.
  2. Study of activity of salivary amylase under optimum conditions

 

GENETICS AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

 

CODE: ZOO-HG-4016

 

THEORY (CREDITS 4)

Unit 1: Introduction to Genetics 3

Mendel’s work on transmission of traits, Genetic Variation, Molecular basis of Genetic

Information

 

Unit 2: Mendelian Genetics and its Extension 8

 

Principles of Inheritance, Chromosome theory of inheritance, Incomplete dominance and co-

dominance, Multiple alleles, Lethal alleles, Epistasis, Pleiotropy, sex linked inheritance,

 

extra-chromosomal inheritance

 

Unit 3: Linkage, Crossing Over and Chromosomal Mapping 9

Linkage and crossing over, Recombination frequency as a measure of linkage intensity, two

factor and three factor crosses, Interference and coincidence, Somatic cell genetics – an

alternative approach to gene mapping

Unit4: Mutations 7

Chromosomal Mutations: Deletion, Duplication, Inversion, Translocation, Aneuploidy and

Polyploidy; Gene mutations: Induced versus Spontaneous mutations, Back versus Suppressor

mutations,

Unit 5: Sex Determination

Chromosomal mechanisms, dosage compensation

 

4

 

Unit 6: History of Life

Major Events in History of Life

 

2

 

Unit 7: Introduction to Evolutionary Theories

Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism

 

Unit 8: Direct Evidences of Evolution

Types of fossils, Incompleteness of fossil record, Dating of fossils, Phylogeny of horse

 

Unit 9: Processes of Evolutionary Change 9

Organic variations; Isolating Mechanisms; Natural selection (Example: Industrial melanism);

Types of natural selection (Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive), Artificial selection

Unit 10:Species Concept 6

Biological species concept (Advantages and Limitations); Modes of speciation (Allopatric,

Sympatric) 68

Unit11:Macro-evolution 5

 

Macro-evolutionary Principles (example: Darwin’s Finches)

 

Unit 12: Extinction 6

Mass extinction (Causes, Names of five major extinctions, K-T extinction in detail), Role of

extinction in evolution

 

GENETICS AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

 

PRACTICAL (CREDITS 2)

  1. Study of Mendelian Inheritance and gene interactions (Non Mendelian Inheritance) using

suitable examples. Verify the results using Chi-square test.

  1. Study of Linkage, recombination, gene mapping using the data.
  2. Study of Human Karyotypes (normal and abnormal).
  3. Study of fossil evidences from plaster cast models and pictures
  4. Study of homology and analogy from suitable specimens/pictures
  5. Charts:
  6. a) Phylogeny of horse with diagrams/ cut outs of limbs and teeth of horse ancestors
  7. b) Darwin’s Finches with diagrams/ cut outs of beaks of different species
  8. Visit to Natural History Museum and submission of report

 

SKILL ENHANCEMENT COURSES

CODE: ZOO-SE-3014 Credit-4

 

Ornamental Fish & Fisheries

 

  1. Ornamental Fish Diversity of North East India.
  2. Aquarium plant diversity in the wetland of Assam.
  3. Construction and management of Home Aquarium.
  4. Natural feed of Ornamental Fish
  5. Strategies for maintenance of natural colour of Ornamental Fish
  6. Natural Breeding of Tricogaster species
  7. Health management of Ornamental Fish
  8. Feed formulation of Ornamental Fish
  9. Development of Biological filtration in Aquarium
  10. Pure culture of planktons

Practical’s

  1. Identification of Ornamental Fish
  2. Culture of Indigenous ornamental fish in Aquarium
  3. Estimation of Physico-chemical characteristics of Aquarium water
  4. Biological filter for removal of Ammonia from Aquarium
  5. Culture of Planktons

 

APICULTURE

CODE: ZOO-SE-3024

 

(CREDITS4)

 

Unit 1: Biology of Bees

History, Classification and Biology of Honey

Bees Social Organization of Bee Colony

Unit 2: Rearing of Bees

Artificial Bee rearing(Apiary),Beehives–Newton and

Langstroth Bee Pasturage

Selection of Bee Species for

Apiculture Bee Keeping Equipment

Methods of Extraction of Honey (Indigenous and Modern)

 

Unit 3: Diseases and Enemies

Bee Diseases and Enemies

 

Control and Preventive

measures

Unit 4:Bee Economy

Products of Apiculture Industry and its Uses (Honey, Bees Wax,

Propolis), Pollen etc

Unit5:EntrepreneurshipinApiculture

Bee Keeping Industry–Recent Efforts, Modern Methods in employing

artificial Beehives for cross pollination in horticultural gardens

 

CODE: ZOO-SE-4014

 

SEC 2 N0N-

MULBERRY

SERICULTURE

Unit 1: Introduction

Sericulture: Definition, history and present status of Mulberry and Non-Mulberry Sericulture; Silk route

Varieties of Silk; Types and distribution of non-mulberry or wild or vanya sericigenous insects in N-E India

Unit 2: Biology of Non-mulberry Silkworm:

Life cycle of silkworm- Eri and Muga

Structure of silk gland and Nature of Silk

Unit 3: Rearing of Silkworms (Eri and Muga Silkworm):

Food plants of Eri and Muga Silkworm

Rearing Operation:

Rearing house/Site and rearing appliances

Disinfectants: Formalin, bleaching powder

Rearing technology: Early age and Late age rearing

Environmental conditions in rearing-Temperature, Humidity, Light and Air

Types of mountages

Harvesting and storage of cocoons

Spinning and Reeling of silk

Unit 4: Pests and Diseases:

Pests of eri and muga silkworm

Pathogenesis of eri and muga silkworm diseases: Protozoan, viral, fungal and bacterial

Prevention and control measures of pests and diseases

Unit 5: Entrepreneurship in Non-Mulberry Sericulture:

 

 

Varieties of Non-Mulberry Silk products and economics in India

Prospectus of Non-Mulberry Sericulture in India: Non-Mulberry Sericulture industry in different states,

employment generation and potential

Visit to various sericulture Govt. /Private Farm/ Centers.

CODE: ZOO-SE-4024

 

Wildlife Photography and

Ecotourism

 

CREDITS 4

Unit-I Tools and Technique of Photography Credit-1

CODE: ZOO-SE-4034

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

Credit:4

 

Unit 1:

Foundations of Research:

Meaning, Objectives, Motivation: Research Methods vs Methodology, Types of Research:

Analytical vs Descriptive, Quantitative vs Qualitative, Basic vs Applied

Unit 2:

Research Design Need for research design:

Features of good design, Important concepts related to good design- Observation and Facts, Prediction

and Explanation, Development of Models. Developing a research plan: Problem identification,

Experimentation, Determining experimental and sample designs

Unit 3:

Data Collection, Analysis and Report Writing

Observation and Collection of Data-Methods of data collection- Sampling Methods, Data Processing

and Analysis Strategies, Technical Reports and Thesis writing, Preparation of Tables and Bibliography.

Data Presentation using digital technology

Unit 4:

Ethical Issues

Intellectual property Rights, Commercialization, Copy Right, Royalty, Patent law, Plagiarism, Citation,

Acknowledgement

 

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